This can happen in overweight individuals, with people who have jobs that involve standing for long periods of time , or strolling or running lengthy distances. This condition known as pes planus (“flat foot” or “fallen arches”). The toes comprise a total of 14 phalanx bones , arranged in an analogous manner because the phalanges of the fingers (seeFigure 8.19). The big toe has two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal phalanges.

The thymus differs from lymph nodes and spleen in being epithelial in origin and character and in having no sinusoids, and from endocrine glands in having no proved hormone-secreting activity. Recognition of the essential role of the thymus in leukemogenesis and in immunobiology has kindled curiosity in its form as nicely as its operate. For research on morphology the mouse thymus is ideal, having few lobules and a comparatively easy vascular pattern . Most of the nodes of the viscera aren’t bilateral, although some are on or near the midline. The principal vessels carrying blood from the guts are the pulmonary artery from the best ventricle and the aorta from the left ventricle (Figure 13-2). Branches of these arteries provide all parts of the physique, their origins and pathways being considerably variable in individuals in addition to in strains .

The fibrous connective tissue underlying the epithelium merges with the periosteal connective tissue of the cranium bones. The dorsal and ventral portions of the nasal septum are composed of bone, the central portion of cartilage. The motion at this kind of joint is normally small and tightly constrained by surrounding ligaments.

Atretic follicles with pycnotic cells, fragmented ova, and remnants of zona pellucida are scattered throughout the cortical stroma. The respiratory system consists of parts anterior and posterior to the pharynx where respiratory and digestive tracts cross. The air passageways of the anterior division are surrounded by bones of the cranium a food handler who is forming hamburger patties giving the rigidity essential to forestall collapse at inspiration. The air ducts of the posterior division are supported and given rigidity by cartilaginous plates and rings.

The lining of cuboidal epithelium is surrounded by a fibroelastic lamina propria, a thin layer of interwoven smooth muscle fibers, and an outer coat which is in part adventitia and partially serosa (Figure 13-39A). The frequent bile duct is lined with cuboidal cells altering to columnar the place the duct enters the intestinal wall. The walls of the cystic duct and customary bile ducts comprise a scattering of alveolar glands opening directly into the lumen (Figure 13-39B).

This is called an articular disc, which is generally small and oval-shaped, or a meniscus, which is larger and C-shaped.. The forearm is the region of the higher limb positioned between the elbow and wrist joints. This area accommodates two bones, the ulna medially and the radius on the lateral facet. The elbow joint is shaped by the articulation between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, plus the articulation between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius. The proximal radioulnar joint is the articulation between the top of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna.

Thehead of the radiusis a disc-shaped structure that types the proximal finish. Theneck of the radiusis the narrowed area instantly beneath the expanded head. Inferior so far on the medial facet is theradial tuberosity, an oval-shaped, bony protuberance that serves as a muscle attachment point. The distal finish of the radius has a easy surface for articulation with two carpal bones to kind theradiocarpal jointor wrist joint (Figure 6.43). The lateral finish of the radius has a pointed projection called thestyloid process of the radius.